BRIEF BIOGRAPHY

John Peter McGrath was born on 1 June 1935 in Cheshire, England into an Irish Catholic family. In the early days of World War II, in 1939, after his father had been called up to the RAF, his mother took him and his younger brother, who was only three weeks old, to Buckley, North Wales. McGrath recalled the ex-mining village and his school days at Mold Alun Grammar School, Flintshire: 'I had some fantastic teachers. They whisked me through everything and I did my O-Levels at thirteen'. 1

The family remained in Buckley until 1951, when they returned to Cheshire where McGrath worked in a steam laundry and on a farm. From 1953 to 1955 he served in the British Army as, progressively, a gunner, bombardier and artillery officer. During his service, he was stationed in Germany, Egypt, Jordan, Malta and Tripoli. He said about his two years of National Service that it was 'the most extraordinary experience',2 on which he drew later for his plays. After demobilisation, he studied English at St. John's College, Oxford University, where he graduated in 1958, and took a Diploma in Education in 1959.

At university, McGrath actively participated in the work of the student Experimental Theatre Club and the Oxford University Drama Society, directing shows, such as Aristophanes' The Birds in a garden in Christ Church College in summer 1959. His work was cited in Humphrey Carpenter's OUDS: a Centenary History of the Oxford University Dramatic Society 1885-1985 (1985) as exceptionally talented. Amongst his own plays that were produced at Oxford two have often been mentioned as illustrative of the first phase of his literary output. The first of the plays in question is A Man Has Two Fathers, about a young man torn between a tramp and a wealthy man as father figures, which was staged by the University Dramatic Society in 1958. The second play is Why the Chicken, which depicts a struggle between a female social worker and a gang of working-class youngsters, and which was presented by Oxford Theatre Group in 1959. In 1958 he met a fellow student, Elizabeth MacLennan, at an improvisation workshop. He later cast her as Molly Bloom in his production of Joyce's Ulysses which had been modified by the Lord Chamberlain. They married in 1962 and have a daughter and two sons.

In 1958, John McGrath accepted an invitation from George Devine to London to write something for the Royal Court Theatre. After the commercial and critical success of The Tent in 1958, McGrath's play Why the Chicken was produced by Lionel Bart in 1960. After its commercial failure, McGrath briefly turned from theatre to television. For the following five years he worked for the BBC as a writer/director of various series and arts programmes. Amongst other projects, he wrote for, and was the founding director of, Z-Cars, the famous police series that started in 1962. He finally returned to the stage in 1965 when he wrote Events while Guarding the Bofors Gun, often considered his first major stage play, which was based on his own experience of the life in the army, and his critique of postwar British imperialism.

In the late 1960s McGrath began writing screenplays for Hollywood. His output included Billion Dollar Brain (1967), The Bofors Gun (1968), The Virgin Soldiers (1969), and The Reckoning (1970). At approximately the same time, he also became active in the radical socialist movement. In 1968 he went to Paris to take part in the May évènements. McGrath has always been politically aware. This political awareness may be seen in his theatrical method: he has always been eclectic in his choice of styles, ranging from pantomime or popular theatre techniques and ceilidh, all imbued by gritty political humour, on the one hand, to highly literate, even surreal, experiments on the other. Baz Kershaw observes that:

  McGrath [drew] on the techniques of popular theater genres, stand-up comedy, working-class club entertainments and a medley of musical forms (rock, folk, country and western, and pop) to create an original aesthetic that was recognizably 'Scottish' but at the same time tuned in to global political history.3

McGrath himself has said in interview with Raymond Ross4 that, theatrically, he learnt much more from John Arden and Joan Littlewood than from Brecht. He has always remained open to a variety of external stimuli, and, in this sense, it is very probable that the time spent in Paris and the events that he experienced there may have radically influenced his writing in the 1970s. His theatrical vision has always been openly coloured by Marxist thinking, and he has shown throughout his rich writing career, in Joyce McMillan's words, 'a committed socialist view of the relationship between life and art, theatre and politics, culture and class […]',5 for which he has been described as 'Mr Left Wing Theatre'6 in Britain.

In the early 1970s, he cooperated closely with Alan Dosser of Liverpool Everyman Theatre, on the shaping of community-style theatre that would attract working-class audiences, rather than exclude them 'on grounds of education, wealth and class'.7 Out of his collaboration with Everyman Theatre came productions such as Hover Through the Fog (1969), Unruly Elements (1971), Soft or a Girl (1971) and The Fish in the Sea (1972), as well as the adaptations of Brecht's Caucasian Chalk Circle (1972) and Terson's Prisoners of the War (1972).

While working on his play Trees in the Wind, McGrath created the first 7:84 Theatre Company which premièred the play at the Cranston Street Hall in Edinburgh on 25 August 1971. Receiving a small grant from the Arts Council of Great Britain (ACGB) and much moral and material support from all those involved in the project, the company toured England, Scotland and Wales. McGrath described how many people involved in the project worked without compensation, or even put in their own funds, whilst working on 'less than subsistence wages'.8 The company was named after a statistic published in The Economist in 1966, according to which seven percent of the population of Britain owned eighty-four percent of its wealth. The name of the company was emblematic of its opposition to such inequality and of its mission, creating theatre about and for a working-class audience. McGrath firmly believed that there was, indeed, 'a working class audience for theatre in Britain which [made] demands, and which [had] values, which [were] different from those enshrined in our idealized middle-class audience'.9 In the following two years 7:84 Theatre Company toured productions of plays by Trevor Griffiths, John Arden, Margaretta D'Arcy, Adrian Mitchell and John McGrath's Plugged-In to History, Underneath and Serjeant Musgrave Dances On. For most of 1972, the bulk of the company's work was organised from McGrath's home on an equal profit share basis. He worked for no wages at all most of the time. In the first year alone, despite grave financial difficulties, 7:84 collaborated with an impressive number of theatre practitioners including Victor Henry, Elizabeth MacLennan, Gillian Hanna, Feri Lean, David MacLennan, Sandy Craig, Gavin Richards, Tony Haygarth, Stephen Rea and Roger Sloman, amongst many others, and, besides McGrath, the shows were directed by renowned directors of the like of Richard Eyre, Alan Dosser, and Pam Brighton.

At the end of 1972, after intense debate and a lot of encouragement from both McGrath and Elizabeth MacLennan, Gavin Richards left in early 1973 to start his own company, Belt and Braces Road Show. The rest of the company divided into two: most of the members remained in London creating the basis for 7:84 (England), while McGrath, David MacLennan, Feri Lean and Elizabeth MacLennan went north to establish what became 7:84 (Scotland).

This was the beginning of a second period of McGrath's creative work, which lasted until 1989. While maintaining his work with what was now 7:84 (England), he also worked with the Scottish company, whose initial intention was to create plays that would tour village halls in the remotest areas of the Scottish Highlands and reach an audience who had never before had a chance to experience theatre. 7:84 (Scotland)'s first show of this kind was The Cheviot, the Stag and the Black, Black Oil, which Joyce McMillan has called a 'brilliant ceilidh of rage and laughter against the exploitation of land and people'.10 The play was launched at a 1973 conference in Edinburgh on the future of Scotland, followed by a tour of twenty-eight village and small town venues in the north of Scotland, the Hebrides, and the Orkneys. Later that year the production returned for a second tour of the Highlands, before travelling to Ireland. It was subsequently broadcast on BBC 'Play for Today' programme in 1974, and again in 1975. Since then, it has been shown on TV in Norway, Sweden, New Zealand and Australia, and became known as one of the greatest British post-war political plays. Its reputation ensured the position of 7:84 Theatre Company (Scotland) as one of the leading political theatre companies both at home and abroad. MacMillan referred to this in 1996:

  Twenty-three years on, the tour of The Cheviot is still mentioned as a crucial moment in defining the modern consciousness of the Highlands and Islands; and for fifteen years after that tour, it was possible to trace the impact of the radical style adopted by McGrath's 7:84 Company - and expounded in his brilliant 1980 book of lectures, A Good Night Out - on dozens of young Fringe companies'.11

Following their success in the Highlands 7:84 decided to try to reach working-class audiences in the industrial areas of Scotland. So, plays written by McGrath in the 1970s dealt with the history and continuation of socialism in Scotland, and the position of women in Scottish society. An example of the former is The Game's a Bogey (1974), a play about John McLean, the Red Clydesider, and the latter is exemplified by Little Red Hen (1975), which deals with two generations of socialist women. McGrath continued writing about the latter theme in his 1980's plays such as Blood Red Roses (1980), Swings and Roundabouts (1980), Women in Power (1983), an adaptation of Aristophanes' Assembly of Women, The Baby and the Bathwater (1984), and Mairi Mhor: Woman of Skye (1987). The latter dealt with the life of the well-known nineteenth-century Gaelic song-maker and land campaigner, and was later produced as a film version, and broadcast on BBC2 TV in 1995.

In March 1975, 7:84 Theatre Company (England) received annual funding from the ACGB. As a consequence, a company of six actors and four musicians was formed who produced such McGrath shows as Lay Off (1975), about the rise of multinational companies, Yobbo Nowt (1975), inspired by Bertolt Brecht's The Mother, and Big Square Fields (1979), about the effects of the Industrial Revolution on farming communities. The other plays produced by this company included The Rat Trap (1976), Trembling Giant (1977), The Life and Times of Joe England (1977), Bitter Apples (1979), Nightclass (1981) and Rejoice! (1982). With these shows the company toured Britain and abroad. They played in occupied factories, town halls, Communist Party rallies, Socialist Worker Party branches, and theatre spaces in London, Glasgow, Amsterdam, Manchester, South Wales, and elsewhere. At the same time as 7:84 Theatre Company (England) secured an Arts Council grant, the Scottish company also succeeded in obtaining funding from the Scottish Arts Council and presented McGrath's musical, mentioned above, Little Red Hen (1975).

Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, John McGrath continued to be artistic director and principal writer of both 7:84 companies and he also collaborated with several other theatre companies at home and abroad, such as the Mickery Theatre in Amsterdam. He fought ideological battles with other leftist writers such as David Edgar and David Hare, who strongly disagreed with his use of popular forms in theatre. In 1979, at the Scottish Assembly referendum, a majority vote for an Assembly was blocked by a clause sponsored by a North London M.P. of Scottish origin. In reaction, 7:84 Theatre Company (Scotland) presented Joe's Drum, a play about popular protest against injustice, which itself became popular with audiences. The Company continued to fill theatre venues in Central Scotland with productions such as Swings and Roundabouts (1980) and Blood Red Roses (1980). They continued to produce in this fashion until 1988, when, having lost what he considered a key battle with the Scottish Arts Council to strengthen his company's political edge, John McGrath was forced to resign. The company's new artistic director, David Hayman, refused his proposal for a promenade performance of a large-scale history play in Glasgow, Border Warfare.

The break with 7:84 marked the beginning of a third phase in McGrath's writing, marked by the production of plays such as Border Warfare in 1989 and John Brown's Body in 1990. Border Warfare was first staged as a play about 'historic and political borderlines between Scotland and England',12 and was later produced by Wildcat and McGrath's Freeway Films as three one-hour episodes for television. Both Border Warfare and John Brown's Body drew strongly on McGrath's fascination with the carnivalesque tradition and popular theatre in order to explore current political themes. McGrath also continued to explore the borders of humanity. In his 1994 production of Reading Rigoberta, produced by Freeway Films and presented at Theatre Workshop in Edinburgh on 19 August 1994, McGrath directed his wife Elizabeth MacLennan in a powerful one-woman play about the life of the Nobel prize winner, Rigoberta Menchu, whose family had been victims of dictatorial brutality in Guatemala. Catherine Lockerbie described McGrath's direction as 'scenes out of Hieronymus Bosch's worst visions of eternal torment: living human beings flayed, mutilated, set ablaze as their mothers watch'.13

During the 1990s, McGrath often collaborated with Wildcat Theatre Company, a 1977 offshoot of 7:84 Theatre Company (Scotland), creating plays on an epic scale, and basing his formal experiments on the work of directors such as Ariane Mnouchkine and Luca Ronconi. In 1994, for example, Wildcat staged McGrath's adaptation of Neil Gunn's folk epic, The Silver Darlings, directed by John Bett. After seeing it at the King's Theatre in Edinburgh in September 1994, Colin Donald referred to its epic scale, calling McGrath's stage adaptation 'a grand theatrical event' and 'a labour of love':

  [a]ttractive young hero, mythic rite-of-passage structure, strong family reconciliation themes, massive elemental symbols. Written in the 1930s, when optimism must have been difficult, the novel stands as a great act of faith in Scotland's future, rooted in an understanding of man and women in the landscape, and a deep knowledge of life in the Highlands since time immemorial.14

Amongst his other collaborations with Wildcat are Ane Satire of the Four Estates (1996), inspired by Sir David Lindsay's classic play, and The Last of the MacEachans (1997). The former was directed by McGrath and presented, in the form of a political pantomime, as part of the Edinburgh International Festival programme. It played at the Edinburgh International Conference Centre, a non-traditional venue for theatre, in August 1996. The play was occasionally ridiculed as left-wing and crude. The Times, for example, dismissed it as 'a silly, coarse and imaginatively monotonous spin-off',15The Daily Telegraph concluded that it was 'crude, predictable and awesomely unfunny',16 whilst The Sunday Times accused it of being 'full of noise and shallow cliches'.17 To this Colin Donald had only one comment in his review of Wildcat's production, 'So it worked then,' and went on to explain that:

  McGrath and Wildcat set out to produce a piece of theatre that was popular (meaning that a lot of people would come to see it), that got under the skin of its targets, and that undermined the soporific patterns of discourse between the Festival, its audiences and those fruitful specimens for behavioural scientists and sociologists known as "the critics".18

In 1997, Freeway followed up by presenting The Last of the MacEachans, a revival of McGrath's 1996 'much admired elegy for the old Highlands'.19 It featured Elizabeth MacLennan, in a performance which Colin Donald described in his review as 'full of wicked charm and acute observation'.20

These productions clearly showed that McGrath had steadily and uncompromisingly continued to create the kind of 'people's theatre' that the early 7:84 Companies had become known for. He also remained true to his early mission to entertain and educate his audiences in terms of the political history of Scotland, when he accepted TAG's invitation in 1997 to write a play that would celebrate the centenary of the trades union movement in Scotland. He explained his decision by suggesting that he was 'attracted by TAG's ability to switch between the high-profile events on big platforms, and its ability to take over school halls and create theatre out of nothing'.]21 The play, Worksong, toured Scottish schools in September 1997, and, according to James Brining, TAG's artistic director, working with McGrath was a valuable experience:

  The play certainly stretches us; you've got all these complex historical facts to express in terms that have to have emotional impact. We want the kids not just to join in with the songs, but to take part in the whole process of the play; it's about the difference between principle versus pragmatism. Obviously John takes a line, but the play keeps things open to discussion. It's quite provocative, but there's nothing wrong with that. It's got the grit that every good oyster needs.22

McGrath strongly believes that people are still interested in political theatre. He feels that 'they are starved of this kind of theatre, and they seize any chance they get to see it'.23 Therefore, despite financial and health crises that have plagued him throughout the last decade, his intention is to create thought-provoking, daring pieces for as long as there is audience interested enough to listen to his ideas. Besides playwriting, McGrath also continues to work in the film industry, producing, with his film company Freeway Films, such renowned features as Carrington (1995) and Ma Vie en Rose (1997). Hailed, and sometimes scorned, both in Scotland and south of the border, for his radical socialist concepts and dedication to a popular theatre ingrained in a community experience, he remains one of the most innovative and vibrant playwrights and theatre practitioners in contemporary Scotland.

Edinburgh

Accepted for publication May 2001

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY

STAGE PRODUCTIONS

A Man Has Two Fathers , Oxford, Oxford University Dramatic Society, June 1958; Oxford Playhouse, July 1958;

The Invasion, adapted from Arthur Adamov's play by John McGrath and Barbara Cannings, Oxford, August 1958;

The Tent, London, Royal Court Theatre, 19 October 1958; London, BBC 3, 10 March 1960;

Why the Chicken, Edinburgh, Oxford Theatre Group, 26 August 1959; English Tour, January-March 1960;

Tell Me, Tell Me, London, Live New Departures, Institute of Contemporary Arts Theatre, October 1960, tour;

Take It, London, Live New Departures, Institute of Contemporary Arts, October 1960, tour;

The Seagull, adaptation of Chekhov's play, Dundee, Dundee Repertory Theatre, 31 July 1961;

Basement in Bangkok, music and songs by Dudley Moore, Bristol, a student group, 1963;

Events While Guarding the Bofors Guns, London, Hampstead Theatre Club, 12 April 1966;

Bakke's Night of Fame, adaptation of William Butler's novel A Danish Gambit, London, Hampstead Theatre Club, January 1968; London, Shaw Theatre, 2 October 1972;

Comrade Jacob, adaptation of David Caute's novel, Falmer, Sussex University, Gardner Arts Centre Theatre, 24 November 1969;

Sharpeville Crackers, London, Lyceum Theatre, April 1970;

Random Happenings in the Hebrides, or, The Social Democrat and the Stormy Sea, Edinburgh, Lyceum Theatre, 7 September 1970;

Prisoners of the War, adapted from the play by Peter Terson, Liverpool, Everyman Theatre, Everyman Theatre Company, 20 January 1971;

Angel of the Morning, Plugged-in to History, They're Knocking Down the Pie Shop, Out of Sight, My First Interview, five short plays produced as Unruly Elements, Liverpool, Everyman Theatre, 10 March 1971;

Hover Through the Fog produced as part of Everyman's Festival of New Plays, Liverpool, Everyman Theatre: 19 May 1971; London, Bush Theatre, 25 July 1972 (with three plays); Out of Sight, London, King's Head Theatre, 13 January 1973;

Trees in the Wind, Edinburgh, 7:84 Theatre Company at Cranston Street Hall, 25 August 1971; Liverpool, Everyman Theatre, 8 November 1971; Exeter, Northcott Theatre, 17 February 1975; 7:84 Theatre Company (England) on tour, 1979-80 including London, Royal Court Theatre, 22 January 1980;

Soft or a Girl, a rock comedy, Liverpool, Everyman Theatre, 24 November 1971; revised version My Pal and Me, Glasgow, Citizens Theatre, 1 April 1975 and tour by 7:84 Theatre Company (England); adapted by Stephen Lowe, Nottingham, Nottingham Playhouse, October 1974; adapted by Billy Colville, London, Half Moon Theatre, 29 May 1975;

The Caucasian Chalk Circle, adapted from the play by Brecht, Liverpool, Everyman Theatre, date unknown, 1972;

Underneath, Liverpool, Everyman Theatre, 7:84 Theatre Company (England) date unknown, 1972;

Serjeant Musgrave Dances on, adapted from John Arden's play, Stirling, MacRobert Arts Centre, 7:84 Theatre Company (Scotland), Royal Lyceum Theatre, 22 September 1972;

Fish in the Sea, music by Norman Smeddles, Liverpool, Everyman Theatre, 29 December 1972; revised version, London, 7:84 Theatre Company (England), music by Mark Brown, Half Moon Theatre, 11 February 1975, and tour;

The Cheviot, the Stag, and the Black, Black Oil, Edinburgh, 7:84 Theatre Company (Scotland), 7 April 1973, Edinburgh, George Square Theatre, as part of "What Kind of Scotland" conference (first public airing), tour; revised version, Edinburgh, Wildcat at Edinburgh Festival Theatre, 9 August 1991;

The Game's a Bogey, Aberdeen, 7:84 Theatre Company (Scotland), January 1974 and tour, including Stirling, Macrobert Arts Centre, spring 1974; radio version, Radio Scotland, autumn 1979; Edinburgh, Netherbow Arts Centre, Scottish Youth Theatre, 9 August 1985;

Boom, Golspie, Sutherland, 7:84 Theatre Company (Scotland), April 1974 and tour; revised version, Aberdeen, 7:84 Theatre Company (Scotland) at His Majesty's Theatre, October-December 1974 and tour;

Lay Off, music by Mark Brown, Lancaster, 7:84 Theatre Company (England) at Lancaster University, 22 May 1975 and tour, including Bangor, Theatr Gwynedd, 9 June 1975, Liverpool, Everyman Theatre, 1 July 1975 and London, Unity Theatre, 10 July 1975;

Little Red Hen, St Andrews, St Andrews Festival, February 1975; Edinburgh, 7:84 Theatre Company (Scotland) at Royal Lyceum Theatre, 15 September 1975, and tour; London, Shaw Theatre, 31 May 1976;

Oranges and Lemons, Amsterdam, Mickery Theatre, and tour of Holland, 1975; Birmingham, Birmingham Repertory Theatre Studio, 1 February 1977;

Yobbo Nowt, York, 7:84 Theatre Company (England) at York Arts Centre, 1975 and tour, including London, Shaw Theatre, 8 December 1975, as Mum's the Word, Liverpool, Edge Hill College, 10 February 1977; as Left Out Lady, New York, Labor Theatre, 1981;

The Rat Trap, music by Mark Brown, Amsterdam, 7:84 Theatre Company (England), 1976; London, Royal Festival Hall, 1976;

Out of Our Heads, music by Mark Brown, Aberdeen, 7:84 Theatre Company (Scotland) at the Arts Centre, 1976 and tour, including London, Royal Court Theatre, 12 April 1977;

Trembling Giant, English version, Lancaster, 7:84 Theatre Company (England) at Lancaster University, May 1977, and tour; Scottish Version, Dundee, 7:84 Theatre Company (Scotland) Dundee Repertory Theatre, 30 May 1977, and tour, including London, Royal Court Theatre, 20 December 1977;

The Life and Times of Joe of England, Basildon, Essex, 7:84 Theatre Company (England), November 1977, and tour, including Holland and Belgium; adapted as The Adventures of Frank, in two parts, "Play for Today", BBC TV, 4 and 11 November 1980;

Big Square Fields, music by Mark Brown, Bradford, 7:84 Theatre Company (England), April 1979, and tour;

Joe's Drum, Aberdeen, 7:84 Theatre Company (Scotland) at Arts Centre, 21 May 1979, and tour;

Bitter Apples, Liverpool, 7:84 Theatre Company (England) at Everyman Theatre, 19 September 1979, and tour;

If You Want to Know the Time, London, Royal Court Theatre, date unknown, 1979;

Swings and Roundabouts, Aberdeen, 7:84 Theatre Company (Scotland) at Arts Centre, 26 February 1980, and tour;

Blood Red Roses, Edinburgh, 7:84 Theatre Company (Scotland) at Church Hill Theatre, 18 August 1980, Edinburgh, George Square Theatre, 1 September 1980, and tour, including London, Stratford East, Theatre Royal; screenplay in three parts for Channel 4 TV, August-October 1985;

Nightclass, music by Rick Lloyd, Edinburgh, 7:84 Theatre Company (England), George Square Theatre, April 1980; Glasgow, Third Eye Theatre, April 1980; Corby, Northamptonshire, March 1981, and tour, including London, Battersea Arts Centre;

The Catch, or, Red Herrings in the Minch, music by Mark Brown, Edinburgh, 7:84 Theatre Company (Scotland) at Moray House Theatre, 15 August 1981, and tour;

Rejoice!, music by Mark Brown, Edinburgh, 7:84 Theatre Company (Scotland) at Heriot Watt Union, 23 August 1982, and tour, including London, Battersea Arts Centre, date unknown;

On the Pig's Back, with David MacLennan, Kilmarnock, Ayrshire, 7:84 Theatre Company (Scotland) and Wildcat Theatre, at People's March for Jobs, 1 May 1983, and tour, including London, Alexandra Palace;

The Women of the Dunes, Ijmuiden, Holland, Regiotheater and tour, June 1983;

Women in Power, or, Up the Acropolis, adaptation of Aristophanes' Assembly of Women, music by Thanos Mikroutsikos, Edinburgh, 7:84 Theatre Company (Scotland), Music Hall, 28 August 1983;

Six Men of Dorset, adaptation of Miles Malleson's play, music by John Tams, Sheffield, 7:84 Theatre Company (England) at Crucible Theatre, 4 September 1984, and tour, including London, Shaw Theatre, 9 October 1984;

The Baby and the Bathwater: The Imperial Policeman, Dunbartonshire, 7:84 Theatre Company (Scotland), Cumbernauld Theatre, September 1984, and tour; revised version, Edinburgh, 7:84 Theatre Company (Scotland), St Columba-by-the-Castle, 12 August 1985;

The Albannach, version of Fionn MacColla's novel, Edinburgh, 7:84 Theatre Company (Scotland), Lyceum Studio, 3 March 1985, and tour in the Highlands including Merkinch, Community Centre, 5 March 1985; Dingwall, Town Hall, 6 March 1985; Invergordon, Royal British Legion, 7 March 1985; Bonar, Bridge Hall, 8 March 1985; Rogart, Rogart Hall, 9 March 1985;

Behold the Sun, libretto by John McGrath and Alexander Goehr, Duisberg, West Germany, Oper-am-Rhein, 19 April 1985;

All the Fun of the Fair, by John McGrath and others, London, Half Moon Theatre, 26 March 1986;

Mairi Mhor: Woman of Skye, Edinburgh, August 1987, and tour;

Border Warfare, Glasgow, Wildcat Theatre and Freeway Films, Old Museum of Transport, 23 February 1989;

John Brown's Body, Glasgow, Wildcat Theatre and Freeway Films, Tramway Theatre, 20 March 1990;

Watching for Dolphins, Edinburgh, Freeway Films, Theatre Workshop, June 1991;

The Wicked Old Man, Leeds, West Yorkshire Playhouse, 1992;

The Silver Darlings, adaptation of Neil Gunn's novel, Glasgow, Wildcat Theatre Company, Citizens Theatre, 17 August 1994; Dundee, Wildcat Theatre Company, Dundee Repertory Theatre, 17 October 1994;

Reading Rigoberta, Edinburgh, Freeway Stage, Theatre Workshop, 19 August 1994;

Half the Picture, by John McGrath and Richard Norton Taylor, London, Tricycle Theatre, 15 June 1994, later televised for BBC 2 transmission;

The Last of the MacEachans, Edinburgh, Freeway Stage, Theatre Workshop, August 1996;

Ane Satire of the Four Estates, adaptation of Sir David Lindsay's play, Edinburgh, Wildcat Theatre Company, International Conference Centre, 16 August 1996;

Worksong, Scottish schools, TAG, 1 October 1997 and tour;

HyperLynks, a rehearsed reading by Elizabeth MacLennan, Edinburgh, The Scotsman Assembly, Assembly Rooms, 15 August 2001.

RADIO AND TELEVISION

The Tent, radio, BBC 3, 10 March 1960;

Bookstand, writer and director on arts series, television, BBC, 1961;

People's Property, writer of Z-Cars episode, directed many other episodes, television, BBC 1, April 1962;

Tempo, director of arts series, television, ABC, 1963;

Diary of a Young Man, series with Troy Kennedy Martin, television, BBC, 1964;

The Entertainers, writer and director of documentary, television, Granada, 1964;

The Day of Ragnarok, television, BBC, January 1965;

Mo, writer and director of documentary, television, BBC, 1965;

Shotgun, with Christopher Williams, television, BBC 2, 1966;

Diary of a Nobody, with Ken Russell, after Geroge and Weedon Grossmith's novel, television, BBC 2, 1966;

Ende der Vorstellung 24 Uhr, television, West Germany, 6 May 1970;

Orkney, adaptation of George McKay Brown's stories, "Play for Today", television, BBC 1, 13 May 1971;

Bouncing Boy, "Play for Today", television, BBC 1, 11 December 1972 and 25 April 1974;

Plugged-in to History, television, BBC 2, 13 January 1973;

The Cheviot, the Stag and the Black, Black Oil, "Play for Today", television, BBC 1, 1974;

Once upon a Union, television, BBC 2, 12 March 1977;

The Adventures of Frank, adaptation of The Life and Times of Joe England, "Play for Today", television, BBC 1, 4 and 11 November 1980;

Sweetwater Memories, writer and director of documentary, television, Channel 4, October 1984;

Blood Red Roses, adaptation of the play, television, Channel 4, November 1985;

There is a Happy Land, television, Freeway/Channel 4, 1987;

Border Warfare, three part version of play, television, Freeway/Channel 4, 1990;

John Brown's Body, three part version of play, television, Channel 4, 1990;

Robin Hood, 20th Century Fox, screenplay by John McGrath and Mark Allen Smith, 1991;

The Long Roads, television, BBC 2, 1992;

Mairi Mhor, television, BBC 2, 1995;

Half the Picture, television, BBC 2, 1995.

FILM

Billion Dollar Brain, screenplay by John McGrath and Len Deighton, from Len Deighton's novel, United Artists, 1967;

The Bofors Gun, screenplay by John McGrath from his play Events while Guarding the Bofors Gun, Copefilms/Everglades/Universal, 1968;

The Virgin Soldiers, screenplay by John McGrath, Ian La Fresnais and John Hopkins, from Leslie Thomas's novel, Columbia/Highroad/Open Road, 1969;

The Reckoning, screenplay by John McGrath from Patrick Hall's novel, The Harp That Once, Columbia Pictures, 1970;

Blood Red Roses, Other Cinema, 1986;

The Dressmaker, screenplay by John McGrath from Beryl Bainbridge's novel, British Screen/Channel Four Films/Freeway/Sheldo, 1989;

Mairi Mhor, Edinburgh, premièred at the Filmhouse, Edinburgh Film Festival, 20 August 1994;

Carrington, producer, Polygram/Freeway Films, premièred at Palais des Festivals, Cannes, 21 May 1995; Edinburgh, Drambuie Edinburgh Film Festival, August 1995;

Ma Vie en Rose, co-producer, CAB/CNC/Freeway/Haut et Court/Le Sept Cinema/Le Studio Canal/RTBF/TFI/WFE,1997.

Aberdeen, Freeway/Norsk Film, world première at Carlovy Vary International Film Festival, 2000, Audience Award at Hamptons International Film Festival, 2000, Young European Jury Award (Moland), Best Actress (Lena Headey) at Brussels International Film Festival, 2001.

 

BOOKS

A Good Night Out: Popular Theatre: Audience, Class and Form (London: Eyre Methuen, 1981; rev. ed. 1984; London: Nick Hern Books, 1996).

The Bone Won't Break: on theatre and hope in hard times (London: Methuen, 1990).

 

PUBLISHED PLAYSCRIPTS

Tell Me, Tell Me in New Departures (London: 1960);

Events While Guarding the Bofors Guns (London: Methuen, 1966);

Jean Renoir, The Rules of the Game: a Film, translated by John McGrath and Maureen Teitelbaum (London: Lorrimer Publishing Ltd, 1970)

Angel of the Morning, Plugged-in to History, They're Knocking Down the Pie Shop as Plugged-in in Plays and Players, November 1972.

Random Happenings in the Hebrides; or, The Social Democrat and the Stormy Sea (London: Davis-Poynter, 1972);

Bakke's Night of Fame (London: Davis-Poynter, 1973);

The Cheviot, the Stag and the Black, Black Oil (Skye: West Highland Publishing, 1974; rev. ed., London: Methuen, 1981);

Fish in the Sea, in Plays and Players, vol. 22, no. 7, April 1975 and vol. 22, no. 8, May 1975; also London: Pluto Press, 1977;

The Game's a Bogey: 7:84's John MacLean Show (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Student Publications Board, 1975);

Boom in New Edinburgh Review, 30, August 1975, pp. 11-30, with introduction by John McGrath;

Little Red Hen (London: Pluto Press, 1977);

Yobbo Nowt (London: Pluto Press, 1978);

Joe's Drum (Aberdeen: Aberdeen People's Press, 1979);

Two Plays for the Eighties: Blood Red Roses, Swings and Roundabouts (Aberdeen: Aberdeen People's Press, 1981);

Jean Renoir, The Rules of the Game: a Film, translated by John McGrath and Maureen Teitelbaum (London: Lorrimer Publishing Ltd, 1990)

Six-Pack: the Scottish Plays (Edinburgh: Polygon, 1996).

SELECTED CRITICISM:

Books:

Peter Ansorge, Disrupting the Spectacle (London: Pitman, 1975), pp. 59-63;

British Drama and Theatre from the Mid-fifties to Mid-seventies (Rostock, GDR: Wilhelm Pieck Universität, 1978) (conference papers);

John Bull, New British Political Dramatists (London: Macmillan, 1984), pp. 18-24;

Colin Chambers and Mike Prior, Playwrights' Progress: Patterns of Postwar British Drama (Ambergate: Amber Lane Press, 1987), pp. 67-75;

Maria DiCenzo, The Politics of Alternative Theatre in Britain, 1968 - 1990: the case of 7:84 Scotland (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996);

W. Reade Dornan, Committed Theatre in post-war Britain: the Approaches of Arnold Wesker and John McGrath (Ann Arbor: Michigan State University, 1988);

Eugène van Erven, Radical People's Theatre (Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1988), pp. 87-108;

Ronald Hayman, British Theatre Since 1955: a Reassessment (Oxford: OUP, 1979), pp. 88-92;

Catherine Itzin, Stages in the Revolution (London: Eyre Metheun, 1980), pp. 103-112; 119-128;

Andreas Jäger, John McGrath und die 7:84 Company Scotland: Politik, Popularität und Regionalismus im Theater der seibziger Jahre Schottland (Amsterdam: B.R. Grüner, 1986);

Baz Kershaw, The Politics of Performance: Radical Theatre as Cultural Intervention (London: Routledge, 1992), pp. 132-167;

Elizabeth MacLennan, The Moon Belongs to Everyone: Making Theatre with 7:84 (London: Metheun, 1990);

Alistair Moffat, The Edinburgh Fringe (Edinburgh: Johnston and Bacon, 1978), pp. 89-90;

Keith Peacock, Radical Stages: Alternative History in Modern British Drama (Westport, Connecticut: Preenwood Press, 1991);

Political Developments on the British Stage in the Sixties and Seventies (Rostock, GDR: Wilhelm Pieck Universität, 1977), pp. 7-41;

T. C. Worsley, Television: the Ephemeral Art (London: Alan Ross, 1970), pp. 19-21, 29-31.

 

Chapters in Books:

'7:84 Theatre Company Scotland' in Kreativität und Dialog: Theaterversuche der 70er Jahre in Westeuropa (eds.) Joachim Fiebach and Helmer Schramm (Berlin, 1983);

Alan Bold, 'The Impact of 7:84' in Alan Bold, Modern Scottish Literature (London : Longman, 1983);

Ian Brown, 'Plugged into History: The Sense of the Past in Scottish Theatre' in Randall Stevenson and Gavin Wallace (eds) Scottish Theatre Since the Seventies (Edinburgh: EUP, 1996), pp.84-99;

Sandy Craig, 'Unmasking the Lie' in Dreams and Deconstructions (Ambergate: Amber Press, 1980), pp. 42-46;

Baz Kershaw, 'John McGrath', in J.S. Bull (ed) Dictionary of Literary Biography: British and Irish Dramatists Since World War II, 2nd series, 233 (Detroit, San Francisco, London, Boston, Woodbridge, Conn: A Bruccoli Clark Layman Book; The Gale Group, 2001), pp. 196-209;

Gunther Klotz, 'Internationalism in Present British Drama' in British Drama and Theatre from the Mid-fifties to the Mid-seventies (Rostock, GDR: Wilhelm Pieck Universität, 1978), pp. 21-31;

John McGrath, 'Give us no frontiers' (poem) in Sylvia Hikins (ed) Roll the Union On! (Liverpool: Toulouse Press, 1973), pp. 51-2;

John McGrath, 'An impersonal note to Che Guevara' (poem) in Marianne Alexandre (ed) Viva Che! (New York, 1968), p. 82;

John McGrath, 'John McGrath comments' in James Vinson (ed) Contemporary Dramatists, rev. ed. (London: 1977), p. 534;

John McGrath, 'Preface' in John McEwan, Who Owns Scotland (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Student Publications Board, 1979);

John McGrath, 'Prologue to Why the Chicken and Song' in Michael Horowitz (ed) Children of Albion (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1969), pp. 195-7;

John McGrath, 'Scotland: Up Against It' in Gordon Brown et al (ed) The Red Paper on Scotland (Edinburgh: Edinburgh Univera Taxidou, 'From Cheviots to Silver Darlings' in Randall Stevenson and Gavin Wallace (eds) Scottish Theatre Since the Seventies (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1996), pp. 149 - 163;

Christian W. Thomsen, 'Three Socialist Playwrights: John McGrath, Caryl Churchill, Trevor Griffiths' in C.W.E. Bigsby (ed) Contemporary English Drama) (London: Arnold, 1981), pp. 156-175.

 

Chapters in Refereed Journals:

Kane Archer, 'Dublin: what really happened', Plays and Players, December 1974, p. 34;

Richard Beacham, 'Political theatre in Britain: the 7:84 Company', Theatre, 10, Spring 1979, pp. 49-53;

C.W.E. Bigsby, 'The Politics of Anxiety', Modern Drama, XXIV, December 1981, pp. 393-403;

Romilly Cavan, 'Random Happenings in the Hebrides', Plays and Players, April 1973, p. 73;

David Campbell and Douglas Gifford, '7:84 - Heroes and Villains', Chapman, vol. IV, no. 2, 1976, pp. 1-8;

Penny Cherns and Paddy Broughton, 'John McGrath's Trees in the Wind at the Northcott Theatre, Exeter', Theatre Quarterly, 19, September-November 1975, pp. 89-100;

Randall Craig, 'Unruly Elements', Drama, 106, Autumn 1972, pp. 45-46;

Eugène van Erven, '7:84 in '85: Fourteen Years of Popular Theatre for the British Proletariat', Minnesota Review, February 1987, pp. 103-116;

Ramona Gibbs, 'New directions: John McGrath's 7:84 Company', Plays and Players, vol. 20, no. 2, November 1972, pp. xiii - xiv;

Jonathan Hammond, 'Fish in the Sea', Plays and Players, vol. 22, no. 7, April 1975, p. 14;

Jonathan Hammond, 'Fringe', Plays and Players, vol. 20, no.1, October 1972, pp. 49-50;

Jonathan Hammond, 'Lay Off', Plays and Players, vol. 22, no. 12, September 1975, p. 35;

Beth Hayes, 'Bakke's Night of Fame', Plays and Players, vol. 20, no. 2, November 1972, p. 61;

Horst Hohne, 'Political analysis, theatrical form, and popular language in the plays of Charles Wood, Henry Livings and John McGrath', Zeitschrift für Anglistik und Amerikanistik, XXV, 1977, pp. 332-350;

Nadine Holdsworth, 'Good Nights Out: Activating the Audience with 7:84 (England)', New Theatre Quarterly, Vol XIII, No 49, February 1997, pp. 29-40;

Ivan Howlett, 'Brighton', Plays and Players, January 1970, p. 27;

Gunther Klotz, 'Alternatives in Recent British Drama', Zeitschrift für Anglistik und Amerikanistik, XXV, 1977, pp. 152-161'; (see also Klotz, 'Alternatives in Recent British Drama', Political Developments on the British Stage in Sixties and Seventies (Rostock: Wilhelm Pieck Universitat, 1977) pp.42-58)

Gunther Klotz, 'Internationalism in Present British Drama', British Drama and Theatre from the Mid-Fifties to the Mid-Seventies (Rostock: Wilhelm Pieck Universität, 1978); (see also Klotz, 'Internationalism and present British drama', Zeitschrift für Anglistik und Amerikanistik, XXVII, 1979, pp. 35-42;)

Angus Macleod, 'The Bogey Man', Chapman, vol. IV, no. 2, 1976, pp. 12-15;

Tom Maguire, 'Under New Management: The Changing Direction of 7:84 (Scotland)', Theatre Research International, 17.2, 1992, pp. 132 - 137;

Tom Maguire, 'Still Cool For Cats? The Lives and Times of Wildcat Stage Productions', International Journal of Scottish Theatre, vol. 1, no. 1, June 2000, http://arts.qmuc.ac.uk/ijost/

John McGrath, 'Better a Bad Night in Bootle', Theatre Quarterly, 19, September-November 1975, p. 39-54;

John McGrath, 'Clive Goodwin, 1932-1977', History Workshop, 5, Spring 1978, pp. 172-5;

John McGrath, 'Entretiens avec Eldridge Cleaver', Les Temps Modernes, 286, May 1970, pp. 1837-58;

John McGrath, 'Some other mechanism: 'poetic' and 'dramatic' structure in some plays', Encore, 26, July-August 1960, pp. 20-6;

John McGrath, 'The Theory and Practice of Political Theatre', Theatre Quarterly, 35, Autumn 1979, pp. 43-54;

John McGrath, 'TV Drama: the Case Against Naturalism', Sight and Sound, 46.2, Spring 1977, pp. 100-105;

John McGrath, 'A View from the Brink, by David Campton', Encore, 25, May-June 1960, pp. 40-1;

John McGrath, 'The Year of the Cheviot', Plays and Players, February, 1974, pp. 24 - 30; reprinted in The Cheviot, the Stag, and the Black, Black Oil (London: Methuen, 1981).

Tony Mitchell, 'Popular Theatre and the Changing Perspectives of the Eighties', New Theatre Quarterly, Vol 1 No 4, November 1985, pp. 390-399;

Oscar Moore, 'Behind the fringe', Plays and Players, April 1983, pp. 11-13;

Robin Thornber, 'Unruly Elements', Plays and Players, May 1971, p. 55;

Cordelia Oliver, 'Scotland', Plays and Players, July 1973, p. 67;

Malcolm Page, 'John McGrath' (Checklist and bibliography), New Theatre Quarterly, Vol 1 No 4, November 1985, pp. 400 - 416;

Dave Robins, 'Yobbo Nowt', Plays and Players, February 1976, p. 37;

Jeremy Rundall, 'Events While Guarding the Bofors Gun', Plays and Players, June 1966, p. 48'

John Russell, 'The huge red banner', Drama, Summer 1983, pp. 17-19;

Theodore Shank, 'Troupes Anglais de Théatral, différent', Travail Théatral, 22, 1976, pp. 3-16;

Eric Shorter, Drama, 96, Spring 1970, p. 29;

Eric Shorter, 'Random Happenings in the Hebrides', Drama, 99, Winter 1970, pp. 13;

Peter Stothard, 'Out of Our Heads', Plays and Players, June 1977, p. 32;

Robin Thornber, 'Liverpool', Plays and Players, January 1972, pp. 52-53;

Robin Thornber, 'Regions: North and Midlands', Drama, 135 (January 1980), p. 62;

 

Articles, Selected Reviews and Interviews in Newspapers:

Anon., 'In the best tradition of BBC plays', The Stage, 20 May1971, p. 12;

E A, 'New town teddy boys', The Stage, 3 September 1959, p. 18;

A Alvarez, 'As we like it', New Statesman, 12 September 1959, p. 371;

Joan Bakewell, 'Failing with panache', The Times, 5 November 1980, p. 13;

Joan Bakewell, 'Highland fling', Listener, 13 June 1974, p. 771;

Nancy Banks-Smith, 'Play for Today on BBC-1', The Guardian, 7 June 1974;

Merete Bates, 'Are you left or a writer', The Guardian, November 1971;

I Bayne, 'Ideology and 7:84', Question, 3 (December 1975), pp. 17-18;

Simon Berry, 'Regiment of women', Times Literary Supplement, 23 September 1983;

Michael Billington, 'Peripheral pleasures at Edinburgh', The Times, 6 September 1971, p. 8;

Michael Billington, 'Trembling Giant', The Guardian, 21 December 1977;

Michael Billington, 'Women in power', The Guardian, 30 August 1983;

Alan Brien, ' The new heresy', Spectator, 18 September 1959, p. 371;

George Bruce, 'Scotland', Sunday Times, 25 November 1973, p. 37;

Robert Brustein, 'Art in an age of ideology', The Observer, 8 October 1972, p. 36;

Ronald Bryden, 'Imprisoned by proxy', The Observer, 4 February 1968, p. 25;

Ronald Bryden, 'A sinister pantomime', The Observer, 30 November 1969, p. 33;

Andrew Burnett, Douglas MacGregor, ‘Raiding History', The List, 10-23 February 1989, p. 6;

John Carey, 'John Carey discusses Bel Air', Listener, 17 June 1971, p. 796;

Ned Chaillet, 'Trees in the Wind', The Times, 5 December 1979, p. 11;

John Clifford, ‘"Rejoice!" Circuit One', The Scotsman, 25 August 1982, p. 5, CD Online News Archive;

Sandy Craig, 'Have Story Need…. Quantel' in Time Out, 30 October-6 November 1980, pp. 18-19;

Lucia Crothall, 'Bitter Apples', Plays and Players, November 1979, p. 28;

Robert Cushman, 'Fighting off sharks', The Observer, 16 February 1975, p. 29;

Helen Dawson, 'Hebridean patchwork', The Observer, 18 September 1970, p. 25;

Sean Day-Lewis, 'Drama by slogan not frankness', Daily Telegraph, 5 November 1980, p. 13;

Colin Donald, 'Critics with righteous touch', The Scotsman, 27 August 1996, CD Online News Archive;

Colin Donald, ‘Estaites agents', The Scotsman, 15 August 1996, p. 3;

Colin Donald, 'The Last of the MacEachans Freeway Stage Theatre Workshop Theatre', The Scotsman, 20 August 1996, CD Online News Archive;

Colin Donald, 'Maggie Smith to star in Edinburgh', The Scotsman, 3 June 1997, CD Online News Archive;

Colin Donald, 'Playing for the nation', The Scotsman, 27 July 1996, CD Online News Archive;

Colin Donald, 'Playing TAG with Scottish schools', The Scotsman, 30 September 1997, CD Online News Archive;

Colin Donald, 'Re-enter stage left', The Scotsman, 14 November 1995, CD Online News Archive;

Colin Donald, 'The Silver Darlings', The Scotsman, 29 September 1994, CD Online News Archive;

Colin Donald, 'Theatre Choice… Wildcat', The Scotsman, 8 April 1997, CD Online News Archive;

Jacqueline Dyason, 'The Cheviot, the Stag and the Black Black Oil', The Stage, 13 June 1974, p. 15;

John Elsom, 'Systems', Listener, 27 February 1975, p. 280;

Paul Ferris, 'Wired for sound', The Observer, 13 March 1960, p. 23;

John Forsyth, '7:84 replies', Question, 4, January 1976, pp. 18-19;

Alice N. Frick, 'Story wore thin', The Stage, 14 July 1966, p. 12;

Stephen Gilbert, 'Comedy with chips' Radio Times, 1-7 November 1980, pp. 9, 11;

Penelope Gilliatt, 'Soldier's revenge', The Observer, 24 April 1966, p. 25;

P Gillman, 'Enter stage left: the north wind of change', Radio Times, 30 May 1974, pp. 10, 13;

Gillian Glover, 'Drop dead dogma', The Scotsman, 3 June 1995, CD Online News Archive;

Joy Hendry, ‘The Baby and the Bathwater: 7:84', The Scotsman, 17 August 1985;

Harold Hobson, 'Acts own miracles', Sunday Times, 4 February 1968, p. 19;

Harold Hobson, 'Banners bright', Sunday Times, 6 June 1976, p. 35;

Harold Hobson, 'Events While Guarding the Bofors Gun', Sunday Times, 17 April 1966, p. 31;

Harold Hobson, 'Faces if despair', Sunday Times, 30 July 1972, p. 29;

Harold Hobson, 'The fringe on top', Sunday Times, 6 September 1959, p. 27;

Albert Hollis, 'Suitable cases for treatment', Saturday Review, 28 September 1968, p. 54;

John Holmstrom, 'Picturesque', New Statesman, 22 January 1965, p. 125;

Stuart Hood, 'Crises', Listener, 18 January 1973, p. 93;

Penelope Houston, 'Khaki blues', Spectator, 23 August 1968, p. 268;

Stuart Hood, 'Great Men', Listener, 21 December 1972, p. 872;

'Allan Hunter profiles John McGrath, who will give this year's Bafta Scotland/Scotsman celebrity lecture', The Scotsman, 10 August 1994; CD Online News Archives;

Kenneth Hurren, 'Frying tonight', Spectator, 7 October 1972, p. 552;

Catherine Itzin, 'Breaking free of the troubled English giant', Tribune, 30 December 1977;

Catherine Itzin, 'Uncompromising class-war commentary', Tribune, 30 May 1975, p. 9;

D.A.N. Jones, 'Prison reform', Listener, 8 February 1968, p. 189;

Graham Jones, 'Lay Off in Cardiff', The Guardian, 16 June 1975;

Richard Kelly, 'Big Square Fields', The Guardian, 24 May 1979;

Frederick Laws, 'Look, no script', Listener, 17 March 1960, pp. 513-514;

Peter Lennon, 'Behind the bonanza', Sunday Times, 9 June 1974, p. 37;

Charles Lewsen, 'Soft or a Girl', The Times, 25 November 1971;

Beata Lipman, 'Cardiff', Sunday Times, 15 June 1975, p. 33;

Catherine Lockerbie, ‘Albannach finds its heart in music', The Scotsman, 4 March 1985, p. 4;

Catherine Lockerbie, 'Reading Rigoberta', The Scotsman, 20 August 1994, at CD Online News Archive;

Lindsay Mackie, 'Scot's gist', The Guardian, 15 April 1974, p. 6;

Frank Marcus, 'Lessons for workers', Sunday Telegraph, 17 April 1977, p. 18;

Frank Marcus, 'Red shadow', Sunday Telegraph, 16 February 1975, p. 14;

Anthony Masters, 'Women in Power', The Times, 30 August 1983;

Ann McFerran, '7:84 six years on', Time Out, 8-14 April 1977, pp. 11, 13 (and letter from John McGrath protesting at misrepresentation, 29 April - 5 May 1977, p. 3);

John McGrath, 'Arthur Miller', Isis (Oxford) 6 May 1959, pp. 20-1;

John McGrath, 'Bloody men', New Statesman, 25 August 1967, pp. 238-9;

John McGrath, 'The boys are back', The Listener, 13 January 1983, n.p.;

John McGrath, 'Clap, clap, clap', New Statesman, 1 September 1967, pp. 266-7;

John McGrath, 'Clouding the vision of the possible', The Scotsman (Weekend Scotsman), 27 November 1976, p. 1;

John McGrath, 'In conclusion', Isis (Oxford), 17 June 1959, pp. 18-20;

John McGrath, 'John Osborne', Isis (Oxford), 13 May 1959, pp. 16-17;

John McGrath, 'Living dangerously', The Guardian, 16 October 1981, p. 11;

John McGrath, 'Murky depths', New Statesman, 1 September 1967, pp. 298-9;

John McGrath, 'The New Socialist 7:84 conference', New Socialist, November-December 1983, pp. 44-5;

John McGrath, 'No politics please, we're British', The Guardian, 5 October 1984, p. 19;

John McGrath, 'Paddy Chayevski', Isis (Oxford), 27 May 1959, pp. 20-1;

John McGrath, 'Power to the imagination', Scottish International, October 1971, pp. 10-15;

Joyce McMillan, 'The axeman cometh', Scotland on Sunday, 11 August 1996, p. 6;

Joyce McMillan, 'See the gap grow', Scotland on Sunday, 18 August 1996, CD Online News Archive;

Joyce McMillan, 'Agitate to create', Scotland on Sunday, 25 August 1996, CD Online News Archive;

Joyce McMillan, 'Part two of The Scotsman's millennial essays reflecting Scotland's cultural contribution to the 20th century: How Scottish theatre won the hundred years' war', The Scotsman, 22 December 1999, CD Online News Archive;

Joyce McMillan and Robert Dawson Scott, 'Give theatre back to the people? Truth is, we never really let it go', The Scotsman, 17 April 2000, CD Online News Archive;

Tom Milne, 'Boys in the barrackroom', The Observer, 18 August 1968;

Richard Mowe, 'Bringing together the money, cast and crew for a film proved a labour of love for Scottish producer John McGrath', Scotland on Sunday, 21 May 1995, CD Online News Archive;

Sigrid Neilson, 'The strange decline of political theatre: the work of the 7:84 Theatre Company', Weekend Scotsman, 9 September 1980;

Sigrid Neilson, 'Swings and roundabouts', Spare Rib, April 1980, p. 46;

Benedict Nightingale, 'The blind side of evil', New Statesman, 21 February 1975, p. 251;

Benedict Nightingale, 'Interpretations', New Statesman, 13 October 1972, p. 522;

Benedict Nightingale, 'Justified sinners', New Statesman, 22 April 1977, p. 541;

Benedict Nightingale, 'Running dogs', New Statesman, 6 June 1978, p. 25;

Barry Norman, 'Bouncing Boy', The Times, 12 December 1972, p. 11;

Cordelia Oliver, 'Blood Red Roses', The Guardian, 15 September 1980, p. 46;

Cordelia Oliver, 'The Catch', The Guardian, 27 October 1981;

Cordelia Oliver, 'Joe's Drum', The Guardian, 1 June 1979;

Cordelia Oliver, 'Rape of a nation', The Guardian, 24 November 1973, p. 10;

Brian Pendreigh, 'McGrath attacks "cretinous" Hollywood', The Scotsman, 22 August 1994, CD Online News Archive;

John Peter, 'An opium for the people', Sunday Times, 17 April 1977, p. 37;

Victoria Radin, 'Return of the perfect pickpockets', The Observer, 1 January 1978, p. 26;

Victoria Radin, 'Victims of the bottle', The Observer, 17 April 1977, p. 26;

Stanley Reynolds, 'Prisoners of the War', The Guardian, 2 November 1972;

Eric Rhode, 'Sublime slob', Listener, 22 August 1968, pp. 252-253;

Raymond J. Ross, ‘7:84 Theatre Company celebrate their tenth birthday', The Scotsman, 10 August 1981, p. 8;

Robert Rye, 'Highland headiness in Edinburgh', The Times, 8 September 1970, p. 13;

Paul Scott, ‘The Catch of Red Herrings in the Minch', The Scotsman, 17 August 1981, p. 4;

Paul Scott, 'The Cheviot, the Stage and the Black, Black Oil' Quaker Meeting House Theatre 4, The Scotsman, 29 August 1997, CD Online News Archive;

Alan Seymour, 'Split psyche', The Observer, 30 July 1972, p. 31;

Eric Shorter, 'Bitter Apples', Daily Telegraph, 24 September 1979, p. 28;

David Spiers, 'Interview with Jack Gold', Screen, July-October 1969, p. 115-128;

Hilary Spurling, 'Down among the dead men', Spectator, 22 April 1966, p. 496;

Hilary Spurling, 'What, you will?', Spectator, 9 February 1968, p. 175;

Bob Tait, 'Power to the Imagination', Scottish International, October 1971, pp. 10-15;

Kenneth Tynan, 'Court on trial', The Observer, 26 October 1958, p. 19;

Kenneth Tynan, 'The end of the season', The Observer, 15 June 1958, p. 15;

Irving Wardle, 'Cromwellian dissenters', The Times, 27 November 1969, p. 20;

Irving Wardle, 'Fish in the Sea', The Times, 13 February 1975, p. 9;

Irving Wardle, 'Out of Our Heads', The Times, 13 April 1977, p. 11;

Irving Wardle, 'Trembling Giant', The Times, 21 December 1977, p. 2;

Irving Wardle, 'Unruly elements', The Times, 11 March 1971, p. 13;

Irving Wardle, 'Yobbo Nowt', The Times, 9 December 1975, p. 14;

David Wilson, 'Double vision', New Statesman, 14 June 1974, p. 862;

 

Endnotes

1 Gillian Glover, 'Drop the dead dogma', The Scotsman, 3 June 1995, CD Online News Archive.

2 Gillian Glover, 'Drop the dead dogma', The Scotsman, 3 June 1995, CD Online News Archive.

3 Baz Kershaw, 'John McGrath' in J. S. Bull (ed) Dictionary of Literary Biography: British and Irish Dramatists Since World War II, 2nd series, 233 (Detroit, San Francisco, London, Boston, Woodbridge, Conn: A Bruccoli Clark Layman Book; The Gale Group, 2001), p. 203;

4 Raymond J. Ross, '7:84 Theatre Company celebrate their tenth birthday', The Scotsman, 10 August 1981, p. 8.

5 Joyce McMillan, 'The axeman cometh', Scotland on Sunday, 11 August 1996, CD Online News Archive.

6 Joyce McMillan, 'The axeman cometh', Scotland on Sunday, 11 August 1996, CD Online News Archive.

7 Joyce McMillan, 'See the gap grow', Scotland on Sunday, 18 August 1996, CD Online News Archive.

8 John McGrath, A Good Night Out: Popular Theatre: Audience, Class and Form (London: Nick Hern Books, 1996), p. 118.

9 John McGrath, A Good Night Out: Popular Theatre: Audience, Class and Form (London: Nick Hern Books, 1996), p. 4.

10 Joyce McMillan, 'The axeman cometh', Scotland on Sunday, 11 August 1996, CD Online News Archive.

11 Joyce McMillan, 'The axeman cometh', Scotland on Sunday, 11 August 1996, CD Online News Archive.

12 Baz Kershaw, 'John McGrath' in J. S. Bull (ed) Dictionary of Literary Biography: British and Irish Dramatists Since World War II, 2nd series, 233 (Detroit, San Francisco, London, Boston, Woodbridge, Conn: A Bruccoli Clark Layman Book; The Gale Group, 2001), p. 203.

13 Catherine Lockerbie, 'Reading Rigoberta', The Scotsman, 20 August 1994, CD Online News Archive.

14 Colin Donald, 'The Silver Darlings', The Scotsman, 29 September 1994, CD Online News Archive.

15 Colin Donald, 'Critics with righteous touch', The Scotsman, 27 August 1996, CD Online News Archive.

16 Colin Donald, 'Critics with righteous touch', The Scotsman, 27 August 1996, CD Online News Achive.

17 Colin Donald, 'Critics with righteous touch', The Scotsman, 27 August 1996, CD Online News Achive.

18 Colin Donald, 'Critics with righteous touch', The Scotsman, 27 August 1996, CD Online News Archive.

19 Colin Donald, 'Theatre choice... Wildcat', The Scotsman, 8 April 1997, CD Online News Arhive.

20 Colin Donald, 'Theatre choice... Wildcat', The Scotsman, 8 April 1997, CD Online News Arhive.

21 Colin Donald, 'Playing TAG with Scottish schools', The Scotsman, 30 September 1997, CD Online News Archive.

22 Colin Donald, 'Playing TAG with Scottish schools', The Scotsman, 30 September 1997, CD Online News Archive.

23 Colin Donald, 'Re-enter stage left', The Scotsman, 14 November 1995, CD Online News Archive.